In 20th century, when the management started to be studied as a separate academic and research field, various questions and academic debates started in intellectual circles. Among those very popular debates, one was regarding classification of management. Whether management is a science or art? Various articles, research papers and books were written in favor of each side and critics created balance by giving their insight about every aspect. Finally the conclusion was made that; management is both; science as well as art and various characteristics of both were given.Whatever might we believe in; science or art, one thing is sure. The application of the management practices demand that we keep both sides in our minds while doing a management job. This means that for being an effective manager a person not only has to follow the scientific process of management but also utilize the art of management. Some aspects of our daily life demand the process to be followed and in some cases we have to utilize the art of management. No matter whatever your job is, you have to use your artistic abilities to get the maximum results and some times effective manager have to say that if we don’t utilize our art, the process itself is unable to give us optimal outcome.Look at the auto manufacturing industry all over the world. USA is understood to be the pioneer in the sector. The sector started to flourish in USA and gave the world new ideas, scope and research but where US auto industry stands today? Almost same production process, plants and procedures are used all over the world. State of the art equipment is used for car manufacturing, still US industry is struggling and companies like Toyota are leading all over the world not GM.What is the reason? The reason is quite simple. When you follow the process and take it the only ultimate source of getting your outcome and not think out of the box (process) the failure or at least long-term inefficiency is ultimate result. US companies no matter, how smart they are, how modern their equipment may be; their inability to defeat the Japanese continuous innovation in the production process gave them a great daunt. Whether it is assembly line process or any other new addition, Japanese didn’t leave their art of management and they utilized it everywhere. They used their brainpower to continuously innovate and find out more efficient, more effective and cheaper ways to achieve maximum output.The researches have shown that the reason of leadership in businesses is innovation. US is still the largest GDP all over the world because of continuous innovation in its system. The administrative, legal, corporate and political system in US has always encouraged its citizens to think more and out of the box to make their country lead in the world. Today, if America is leading the world; that is because of its system. But the dilemma is; auto industry has not been able to use this system in its favor. It has been unable to innovate and defeat the overseas companies at least in its domestic market.Summarizing; I would say that the processes are made to get the maximum possible positive results. We should not wait for the process failure for bringing in something new. We should always strive to utilize our art of management to enhance productivity of the scientific methods. Science is a great tool to achieve your objectives but it cannot replace your natural talent and ability to solve the problem by utilizing your art of management. Thinking out of the box, thinking creatively and acting smartly are still the great ways to do the job in a better and plausible way. The natural art of management must be utilized.
Art Deco pottery was created in a style that followed closely on the heels of Art Nouveau. It was created in France beginning in 1910, spread throughout the world and, then, lost influence with the onset of World War II.Art Deco was originally called art moderne or art decoritif. This has caused a lot of confusion in the United States because, when Americanized, the term is translated “art modern.” This label became an umbrella term that covered a wide range of ‘modern’ styles related to the Machine Age. Labels like “Jazz Moderne” and “Zig-Zag” Moderne were also commonplace.The term we use today – ART DECO – didn’t become popular until the 1960s. In its own time, the style was called by the French terms Arte Moderne or Styles Moderne.Here is a brief discussion relating to 10 historical and stylistic influences on ART DECO POTTERY.
ART POTTERY: Art Pottery first developed in England as a reaction to the industrialization of the ceramics industry. The pottery was made both by individual potters and in specially created studios set up by leading manufacturers. Large, established potteries were quick to adopt some form of handcraft. Soon dozens of potteries sprang up in America. Decoration was based on natural forms and the use of popular glazes like mat green and turquoise.
ART NOUVEAU: Art Nouveau reached its peak in the last decade of the 19th century and continued into the early years of the 20th century. It is known for its distinctive whiplash curves and flowing lines. These were derived from nature and the human figure.
THE ARTS AND CRAFT MOVEMENT: The Arts and Craft Movement was a 19th century social and artistic reform movement. It greatly impacted attitudes toward handcrafted work in England, Europe, and the United States. As with Art Pottery, it developed as a reaction to the mass industrialization which occurred in the mid 18th century.
BALLETS RUSSES: Beginning in 1909 in Paris, the Ballet Russes gained international influence. Stage sets and costumes directly influenced French Art Deco designs in all media. The ballet was known for its use of vibrant colors. It immediately transformed color schemes and strongly affected the decorative styles of the period.
BAUHAUS: The Bauhaus was a school that provided instruction in design and architecture. It was only in existence from 1919-1933, but it has had a lasting influence on Art Deco Pottery. Bauhaus pottery featured unadorned, clean shapes designed for maximum functional efficiency.
CZECH CUBISM: Czech Cubism imbued small scale domestic objects with the monumentality usually reserved for architecture or sculpture, a quality unique among functional ceramics. The style reflected the abstraction of French Cubist paintings filtered through the Bohemian ideology of a group of Czech architects.
DE STIJL: Although the group of Dutch artists and architects who made up the De Stijl confederation were not known for ceramics, their style was influential. They were known for pure geometric forms and primary colors, the very attributes that helped to define the Modernist aesthetic.
DISNEY CARTOON CHARACTERS: The earliest incarnation of Mickey Mouse appeared in 1927. In 1920, Paragon China (a Staffordshire firm) announced that it had signed a deal with Walt Disney for exclusive rights to put cartoon characters on their china. When their rights expired in the mid 1930s, several other companies began featuring the characters.
FUTURISM: The Italian Futurist movement was founded in 1909. Originally a literary movement, it quickly attracted painters and evolved into an exciting approach for arts of all kinds. The Futurists hoped to infiltrate middle class homes with symbols that would transform lifestyles. They were known both for their functional approach and for pure flights of fancy. They created tiles, dishware and vases, and even planned a ceramic road.
THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION: The first Revolutionary porcelains were produced in Russia shortly after the October Revolution of 1917. Costly to produce, the work was somewhat out of line with Soviet values. The ceramics have an art world glamor due to the direct involvement of seminal figures in early Modern Art like Vasily Kandinsky.From the brief discussion above, it is easy to see why Art Deco pottery is so eclectic and glamorous. Many high quality pieces have not yet found their way into private hands, so the work is highly collectible today.
Whether you’re interested in photography, painting, sculpture, film, the digital media, or you aspire for a career in design or a coveted museum spot, a degree can help you achieve your goals. Here’s what you need to know to pursue a degree and what you can expect from your training.Degree CourseworkThe courses offered at a school are as varied as the students who decide to pursue a degree. The curricula in most schools generally feature courses in:• Art history
• Art theory and criticism
• Performing arts
• Painting, drawing sculpture, and photography
• Digital artTypes of DegreesIf you’re interested in pursuing a degree, you have the choice of taking undergraduate as well as graduate paths. They include:• Associate’s of Fine Arts (AFA) . Like most associate’s degree programs, an associate’s degree from an online school, a community college, or technical school lays the academic foundation for a bachelor’s degree.
• Bachelor’s of Fine Arts (BFA) . A bachelor’s degree generally takes four years to achieve, and gives students the professional and creative skills to prepare them for arts-related jobs. Most professional art positions require a BFA at a minimum.
• Master’s of Fine Arts (MFA) . A master’s degree further enhances a student’s understanding of the arts world–particularly management–as well as the advanced development of their creative specialty. Depending on your thesis, you can earn your MFA within two years, however, many students take longer. Generally, teaching and museum positions require an MFA.What Are the Career Opportunities in the Fine Arts? Many students considering a degree wonder what kinds of jobs are available after they graduate. The good news is there are a wide range of options–working as an art buyer, a creative director at an advertising agency, a museum curator, an artistic director in the theatre, or an independent multi-media artist.According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the industries with the highest levels of employment include:• Independent artists, writers and performers
• The entertainment industry
• Specialized design services
• Colleges, universities and professional schools
• The publishing industryThe BLS notes that despite high competition for jobs in the studios, galleries and individual clients are always looking for talented and stylized artists.How Much Money Can I Make with a Fine Arts Degree? Just as there are many different types of artists working in the fine arts, there are as many salary categories. The BLS reports the following median annual wages for some fine arts careers in 2009:• Art directors: $78,580
• Craft artists: $28,960
• Multimedia artists and animators: $58,250
• Fine artists: $44,160Additionally, the BLS notes that earnings for self-employed artists vary widely. Beginning artists may earn a nominal amount while working to establish their names in the art world, while more experienced freelance fine artists and illustrators have the potential to earn more than their salaried counterparts.For creative professionals, a fine arts degree from a fine art school can open the doors to a world of opportunity.